Natural Gas to Revolutionize the Chemicals Industry? New Technologies, Processing Plants, and More!

author Jet S.E.T. Media   1 год. назад
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6 Chemical Reactions That Changed History

Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: https://to.pbs.org/PBSDSDonate Chemicals React! Get yourself an awesome IOTBS shirt! http://dftba.com/besmart ↓ More info and sources below ↓ For lots more of history’s greatest chemical innovations, check out “The Chemistry Book” by Derek B. Lowe: http://amzn.to/1snWG44 ---- Have an idea for an episode or an amazing science question you want answered? Leave a comment or check us out at the links below! Like us on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/itsokaytobesmart Follow on Twitter: http://twitter.com/okaytobesmart http://twitter.com/jtotheizzoe Follow on Tumblr: http://www.itsokaytobesmart.com Follow on Instagram: http://instagram.com/jtotheizzoe Follow on Snapchat: YoDrJoe ----------------- It’s Okay To Be Smart is written and hosted by Joe Hanson, Ph.D. Follow me on Twitter: @jtotheizzoe Produced by PBS Digital Studios: http://www.youtube.com/user/pbsdigitalstudios Editing and Motion Graphics by Arts + Labor Music via APM Stock images from SciencePhoto http://www.sciencephoto.com/ and Shutterstock http://www.shutterstock.com Stock footage from Videoblocks (unless otherwise noted) http://www.videoblocks.com

Natural Gas 101

Natural Gas is a flammable gas, consisting mainly of methane (CH4), occurring in underground reservoirs often with oil. Learn more about natural gas and all types of energy at www.studentenergy.org

Which Power Source Is Most Efficient?

Australian researchers just unveiled the most efficient solar panels ever. How efficient are they, and what is the most efficient source of energy? Get 15% off http://www.domain.com's s domain names and web hosting when you use coupon code DNEWS at checkout! Read More: In world first -- UNSW researchers convert sunlight to electricity with over 40 percent efficiency http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-12/uons-iwf120514.php "UNSW Australia's solar researchers have converted over 40% of the sunlight hitting a solar system into electricity, the highest efficiency ever reported." New world record for solar cell efficiency at 46% French-German cooperation confirms competitive advantages of European photovoltaic industry http://www.ise.fraunhofer.de/en/press-and-media/press-releases/press-releases-2014/new-world-record-for-solar-cell-efficiency-at-46-percent "A new world record for the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity has been established." Australia develops world's most efficient solar panels http://rt.com/business/212383-australia-record-solar-energy/ "?Australian researchers have developed a new method of using commercial solar panels that converts more electricity from sunlight than ever before." What is the efficiency of different types of power plants? http://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.cfm?id=107&t=3 "One measure of the efficiency of a power plant that converts a fuel into heat and into electricity is the heat rate." Improving Efficiencies http://www.worldcoal.org/coal-the-environment/coal-use-the-environment/improving-efficiencies/ "Improving efficiency levels increases the amount of energy that can be extracted from a single unit of coal." The Most Common Electricity Sources in the U.S. http://pureenergies.com/us/blog/the-most-common-electricity-sources-in-the-u-s/ "Though renewable energy is growing fast, the U.S. still gets the vast majority of its power from conventional power plants." Increasing the Efficiency of Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43343.pdf "Coal has long been the major fossil fuel used to produce electricity." Coal Will Survive as Efficient Power Plants Boost Demand http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-06-02/coal-seen-surving-as-efficient-power-plants-boost-demand.html "President Barack Obama's plan to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions left coal with a future even as the industry accuses him of trying to make the fuel obsolete." How Do Wind Turbines Work? http://energy.gov/eere/wind/how-do-wind-turbines-work "So how do wind turbines make electricity?" Screwy-looking wind turbine makes little noise and a big claim http://www.gizmag.com/the-archimedes-liam-f1-urban-wind-turbine/32263/ "Although it's getting increasingly common to see solar panels on the roofs of homes, household wind turbines are still a fairly rare sight." Betz's law http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betz%27s_law Wind Energy More Energy Efficient than Fossil Fuels http://cleantechnica.com/2012/07/18/wind-energy-energy-efficient-fossil-fuels-uk/ "Here's something that may surprise you. Wind energy is more efficient than carbon-based fuels." Wind Energy's Shadow: Turbines Drag Down Power Potential http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/energy/2013/05/130516-wind-energy-shadow-effect/ "As seemingly limitless as the air that swirls around us, wind has proven to be the world's fastest-growing source of renewable energy." Advanced Nuclear Power Reactors http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Nuclear-Fuel-Cycle/Power-Reactors/Advanced-Nuclear-Power-Reactors/ "The nuclear power industry has been developing and improving reactor technology for more than five decades and is starting to build the next generation of nuclear power reactors to fill new orders." Hydroelectric Power http://www.mpoweruk.com/hydro_power.htm "Hydro-electric power, using the potential energy of rivers, now supplies 17.5% of the world's electricity (99% in Norway, 57% in Canada, 55% in Switzerland, 40% in Sweden, 7% in USA)." Hydroelectric Power http://www.usbr.gov/power/edu/pamphlet.pdf "It's a form of energy ... a renewable resource." ____________________ DNews is dedicated to satisfying your curiosity and to bringing you mind-bending stories & perspectives you won't find anywhere else! New videos twice daily. Watch More DNews on TestTube http://testtube.com/dnews Subscribe now! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=dnewschannel DNews on Twitter http://twitter.com/dnews Trace Dominguez on Twitter https://twitter.com/tracedominguez Tara Long on Twitter https://twitter.com/TaraLongest DNews on Facebook https://facebook.com/DiscoveryNews DNews on Google+ http://gplus.to/dnews Discovery News http://discoverynews.com Download the TestTube App: http://testu.be/1ndmmMq

On-site Hydrogen Generation by Steam Methane Reforming - What it's like to be a hydrogen molecule

Animation movie about the process inside HyGear's Hydrogen Generation System (HGS). HyGear's HGS uses the process of Steam Methane Reforming to generate hydrogen on a small-scale. HyGear is a clean technology company with expertise in small-scale Gas Generation, Gas Purification and Gas Recovery Systems. HyGear's lead product is the Hydrogen Generation System (HGS) that generates hydrogen on-site by steam reforming of natural gas. The system reduces logistics, costs and emissions significantly. Second product line is a range of Gas Purification Systems (GPS) to recover waste gas streams or upgrade the purity of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen or methane into purities up to 9.0. The GPS can be installed on-site as sole system or extension of the Gas Generation System, and can be adjusted to customer specific needs. Other focus areas are Energy- and Heat Recovery Systems, Fuel Cell systems, Gas to Liquid systems and combined Heat & Power systems to generate electricity and heat at remote locations. Besides these standardized products, HyGear offers a broad range of gas processing technologies such as (V)PSA, reforming, gas separation and purification, desulfurization and methanation. With these systems and technologies, we are able to offer customer specific solutions that contribute to energy efficiency, process intensification, supply chain efficiency, emission reduction and the utilization of renewable energy sources. Major shareholders are Abengoa Hidrogeno S.A., one of the largest bio-ethanol producers (www.abengoa.es) and PPM Oost NV, a Dutch investment company (www.ppmoost.nl).

Oil and gas companies are facing major technological disruption

Pressure to reduce carbon emissions is putting the future of fossil fuel giants in jeopardy. Their survival plans involve carbon storage and floating wind farms. Meanwhile, one small German village is showing how large companies aren't always essential. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.trib.al/rWl91R7 Over 80% of the world's energy needs are provided by coal, oil and gas. Although technologies to extract fossil fuels may have changed over the decades, the core products themselves have never been challenged. Until now. Pressure to reduce carbon emissions is putting the future of fossil fuel giants in jeopardy. Encouraging the growth of alternative methods to generate and distribute power. In just eight years, the value of the world's biggest power companies has halved. Leaving industry giants scrambling to redefine their role in this new energy world. Across the world, old industries are facing disruption on an unprecedented scale. The pressure to adapt has never been greater. Known as the Paris Accord, 195 countries agreed to a legally binding climate deal to reduce carbon emissions. This 5 trillion dollar industry may be facing a seismic shift but that doesn't mean it's ready to ditch the dirty fossil fuels that made it rich. Instead, many companies are banking on new methods to clean up an old process. Norwegian oil and gas giant, Statoil, struck it rich in the North Sea in the late 1960s. Over four decades later, at its Sleipner gas rig, the company is attempting to make fossil fuel production cleaner. Statoil's business still relies on the harmful burning of fossil fuels by its customers but at least the company is trying to reduce its own carbon footprint. It's transformed some of its offshore rigs with technology that enables engineers to separate the carbon dioxide and pump it underground. Statoil's Sleipner gas rig is the world's first offshore carbon capture storage plant. Each year, Statoil stores 1 million tonnes of CO2 making extraction less carbon intensive. They believe that prioritising gas over more harmful fossil fuels will further reduce global warming and keep them relevant for decades to come. Wind and solar are cleaner but depend on subsidies. To take on the consistency of fossil fuels they face a huge challenge - The unpredictable weather. In Bavaria, a tiny village has used those subsidies to take up the challenge. This community believes it's found a way to produce a steady energy supply just from renewable sources, raising the real prospect of a future free from fossil fuels. Norbert and Kristina Bechteler's family farm has been providing the local community with dairy products for over 200 years but they now have a new income from solar energy. Producing your own energy with solar panels isn't revolutionary but in this village, they're combining solar with other renewables in an attempt to achieve the Holy Grail of a steady energy supply. And they're prepared to use anything to do it. The Deputy Mayor has helped drive the village's pioneering efforts to make renewable energy a realistic option. There's one renewable that never disappears as it can be sourced from the decay of virtually any organic matter and it's called biogas. Of the four biogas plants in the village, Farmer Einsiedler runs the largest. Combining these different sources has been so successful the village now generates five times more energy than it needs. But that is just part of the challenge of turning renewables into a credible energy supply. The Disrupters is an original series exploring how major industries – from music and cars to hospitality – are currently being disrupted by the latest wave of digital innovation. As well as enjoying privileged access into the world biggest tech start ups we show how industry giants respond when faced with such tech-driven innovation - do they adapt - or die? Check out Economist Films: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Read our Tumblr: http://theeconomist.tumblr.com/ Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Check out our Pinterest: https://uk.pinterest.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6

Jether Blaise back with a vengeance, covering the impact the abundance of natural gas has been having on the chemical industry, and the innovations in process technologies that it has spawned. I look at the contrast between processing petroleum as a chemical feedstock vs. processing natural gas as such. Because of the steep energy costs associated with steam reforming of natural gas, and the Fischer Tropsch process, new approaches have been sought out by chemical engineers to lower the costs of producing syngas, or sidestepping that route altogether.

Also, we take a look at a promising technology for reducing the water footprint of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling, and finish up with a look at China's largest propane dehydrogenation facility.

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The video is a little long, most videos wont be this long going forward (I'll try to limit it to just 10 minutes max).

Here are some links for further information:

Hydraulic Fracturing's Impact on the Chemical Industry:

https://www.nature.com/news/how-fracking-is-upending-the-chemical-industry-1.22753

Methane flaring alternative that relies on electric field:
http://www.digitaljournal.com/tech-and-science/science/scientists-develop-an-alternative-to-wasteful-methane-flaring/article/499444

Link to ACS Paper on Methane Flaring Alternative:
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acscatal.7b01587


ASME's Mechanical Engineering Article on Atmospheric Water Harvesting:
https://www.asme.org/engineering-topics/articles/energy/from-fire-to-water

Honeywell's Press Release on China's Propane Dehydrogenation Unit utilizing its technology:
https://www.honeywell.com/newsroom/pressreleases/2017/05/chinas-largest-propane-dehydrogenation-unit-using-honeywell-uop-technology

EPA Research on the impacts hydraulic fracturing has on surrounding water resources:
https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/hfstudy/recordisplay.cfm?deid=332990

Wikipedia Article on Hydraulic Fracturing:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydraulic_fracturing#Environmental_impacts

Magnetized Viruses for Water Treatment:
http://www.chemengonline.com/magnetized-viruses-attack-challenging-bacteria-water-treatment-systems/?utm_campaign=coschedule&utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=ChemEngMag&utm_content=Magnetized%20viruses%20attack%20challenging%20bacteria%20in%20water-treatment%20systems

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