New and advanced materials processing technologies for batteries

author Oak Ridge National Laboratory   5 год. назад
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Graphene: The Next Tech Revolution?

http://dailyreckoning.com/graphene A new groundbreaking material recently discovered has the potential to change the world: Water filtration, cellular and battery technology, aircraft and automotive finishing will never be the same. Find out what Graphene is, and how you can take advantage of this unique technology at the Daily Reckoning: http://dailyreckoning.com/youtubesignup Connect with us on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/TheDailyReckoning Follow on Twitter: https://twitter.com/#!/TheDailyReckoning

Wireless Power Transfer

Wireless Power Transfer is an innovative approach using magnetic resonance coupling of air core transformers designed for today's growing plug-in electric vehicle market. This technology can provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) are burdened by the need for cable and plug charger, galvanic isolation of the on-board electronics, bulk and cost of this charger and the large energy storage system (ESS) packs needed. With a system where you have to physically plug in there are a number of occasions where the owner could very well forget to charge the vehicle. For stationary applications (like charging of a PHEV at home), ORNL's innovative wireless power transfer technology adds a convenience factor compared to actually plugging in which will mean that the vehicle will have a full charge every morning. Electric vehicle charging must be safe, compact and efficient in order to be convenient for customers. By reconfiguring the transformer and altering the resonance frequency, energy is transferred to the battery with lower energy losses and with fewer demands on the primary circuit by the rest of the transformer system. The ORNL discovery shows that sufficient power for the battery can be transferred from the primary to secondary circuits without significant energy losses if the operating frequency is set at 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency of the circuit. The electrical power is then transmitted to the chargeable battery, which is electrically coupled to the secondary circuit through the air core transformer. Some advantages include: •Reduced energy losses during transfer of energy to the battery. •A charge potential that is relatively unaffected by up to 25% misalignment of vehicle. •Other receiving components draw less power from the primary circuit. These advantages allow wireless power technology applications to expand at the workplace and beyond as the demand for EV rises. For vehicles that operate over a fixed route such as busses and shuttle vehicles, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) means that a smaller battery pack can be used. In the traditional system, the battery pack is designed to accommodate the needs of the entire route or shift. With WPT the battery can be downsized because it can be charged when the vehicle stops on its route (a rental car shuttle bus, for example, can charge when it waits in the terminal and again when it waits at the rental car place. Thus the battery only needs enough charge to get to the next stop. This decrease in battery size means significant cost savings to electrify the vehicle. This technology enables efficient "opportunity charging stations" for predefined routes and planned stops reducing down time. Charging can occur in minutes. This improvement also eliminates the harmful emissions that occur in garages while buses are at idle during charging. In larger cities, dynamic charging offers an even greater impact utilizing existing infrastructure. As vehicles travel along busy freeways and interstate systems, wireless charging can occur while the vehicle is in motion. With this technology a vehicle essentially has unlimited electric range while using a relatively small battery pack. In-motion charging stations use vehicle sensors to alert the driver. Traveling at normal speeds, sensors establish in-motion charging. WPT transmit pads sequentially energize to the negotiated power level based on vehicle speed and its requested charging energy. Lower power when vehicle speed is slow and much higher power for faster moving vehicles. Vehicle to Infrastructure communications (V2I) coordinates WPT charging level according to on-board battery pack state-of-charge. V2I activates the roadway transmit pads placing them in standby mode and negotiates charging fee based on prevailing grid rate and vehicle energy demand Dynamic charging would allow electricity to supply a very large fraction of the energy for the transportation sector and reduce greatly petroleum consumption. Previously worrisome traffic delays now provide longer periods of charge while passing over in-motion chargers. Inclement weather such as rain and snow do not affect the charging capability. At ORNL, we are working to develop the robust nature of wireless power technology to provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions.

Mercedes Battery Production Factory

Daimler starts the construction phase for a second battery factory at their subsidiary ACCUMOTIVE’s site in Kamenz, taking a further consequent step towards electromobility. With an investment of about 500 million euros, the site in Kamenz will be one of the biggest and most modern battery factories in Europe. For the official groundbreaking, Prof. Dr. Thomas Weber (Member of the Board of Management of Daimler AG, Group Research & Mercedes-Benz Cars Development), Markus Schäfer (Member of the Divisional Board of Mercedes-Benz Cars, Production and Supply Chain Management) and Frank Blome (CEO Deutsche ACCUMOTIVE GmbH & Co. KG) met with Stanislaw Tillich (Minister President of the Free State of Saxony and President of the German Bundesrat) and other representatives from politics and economy. If you like DPCcars videos please subscribe: https://goo.gl/BSIaFc

ORNL marks 75th anniversary with Lab Day

The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory welcomed the public to its Lab Day on Saturday, marking the laboratory's 75th anniversary with exhibits, science talks, tours, music and food. Approximately 4,500 attendees experienced ORNL's Traveling Science Fair exhibits, packed tours to facilities including the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility, the Historic Graphite Reactor Museum and the Building Technologies Research and Integration Center.

Battery manufacturing

Rechargeable battery cells are manufactured in cylindrical or prismatic cells, as this animation illustrates. First, copper is rolled into a foil that serves as the current collector on the anode side. Aluminum is used on the cathode side. Next, the electrode is deposited onto the current collector foil. The anode is typically made of graphite and the cathode of Lithium-containing oxides or phosphates. The electrode coating goes through a drying step in which unnecessary solvents are removed and the slurry based coating is solidified. After drying, the two electrodes come together in a sandwich structure with two separators - shown in green - positioned in between. This flexible layer structure then goes through a winding process and forms what is called a jelly roll. For prismatic cells, these structures are cut and layered, flatly rolled, or z-folded. Next, the jelly roll is packaged into a cylindrical container that resembles an oversized double "A" battery. Here, you can see the internal structure consisting of the two current collectors with electrode and the two separators for avoiding a short circuit. Before sealing and crimping the container, the battery is filled with liquid electrolyte. It is critical that the electrolyte wets the separator and fills all pores leaving no or minimal voids in the separator foam. Eight to twelve cells are packaged in a module. Then eight to twelve modules are packaged with a battery management and cooling system. Such a battery pack can then be used in plug-in hybrid and all-electric vehicles. The same or very similar battery packs can be used for stationary storage to enable intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind and solar.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing new and advanced materials processing technologies for batteries. These can lead to new battery concepts of which one might be an inherently safe, low-cost, high-performance all solid state battery.

Developments include new material handling and advanced assembling technologies...new ways of depositing materials and creating coatings...

...new advanced photonic processing for drying, sintering or solidification.

Commercial industry, under the pressure of operating at high production yield, cannot take a step back from currently available processing technologies to create new concepts, designs and develop new low-cost and reliable technology with uncertain outcomes.

Universities have very limited capabilities in doing large scale process development.

National laboratories need to fill these roles.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory has a major focus on new process development for a variety of applications and will help industry re-invent materials processing and device assembling for advanced batteries.

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