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This video shows a Laurell Technologies WS-650Hz-23NPP spin processor with a fixed central UD-3 dispenser and an off-center UD-3b dispenser. This combination of a central UD-3 and off-center UD-3b allows you to completely automate a spin coating and edge bead removal process. The adjustable nature of the UD-3b mounting, and the use of the correct needles, allows you to use it as an additional center dispense unit. Up to three UD-3b dispensers can be mounted on the lid of our 23NPP series system allowing you to spin-coat multiple layers on 150 mm substrates. Our Universal Dispense units are fully integrated into the system allowing you to program and control them at every step of your process. For more information please visit http://www.laurell.com/
Video related to Chips & Tips article by Gurucharan V. Karnad, R. N. Ninad and V. Venkataraman showing how to create a spin coater for polymer-based microfluidic devices at a fraction of the cost of commercial machines. G. V. Karnad et al., Design of an inexpensive spin coater (with a touch-screen interface), Chips & Tips from Lab on a Chip, 13 March 2012. http://blogs.rsc.org/chipsandtips/2012/03/13/design-of-an-inexpensive-spin-coater-with-a-touch-screen-interface/ Chips & Tips is a unique and regularly updated forum from Lab on a Chip for scientists in the miniaturisation field, aiming to provide a place where ideas and solutions can be exchanged on common practical problems encountered in the lab, which are seldom reported in the literature. (http://blogs.rsc.org/chipsandtips)
No more filling syringes or pressure vessels. Dispense material from any open container with our combined pump and dispense unit.
TO USE OR PRINT this presentation click : http://videosliders.com/r/1038 ============================================================== Introduction to Graphics Hardware and GPUs Yannick Francken Tom Mertens ,Overview Definition Motivation History of Graphics Hardware Graphics Pipeline Vertex and Fragment Shaders Modern Graphics Hardware Stream Programming GPU Stream Programming Languages Exercise More Information ,Definition Logical Representation of Visual Information Output Signal ,Motivation Real Time: 15 – 60 fps High Resolution ,Motivation High CPU load Physics, AI, sound, network, … Graphics demand: Fast memory access Many lookups [ vertices, normal, textures, … ] High bandwidth usage A few GB/s needed in regular cases! Large number of flops Flops = Floating Point Operations [ ADD, MUL, SUB, … ] Illustration: matrix-vector products (16 MUL + 12 ADD) x (#vertices + #normals) x fps = (28 Flops) x (6.000.000) x 30 ≈ 5GFlops Conclusion: Real time graphics needs supporting hardware! ,History of Graphics Hardware … - mid ’90s SGI mainframes and workstations PC: only 2D graphics hardware mid ’90s Consumer 3D graphics hardware (PC) 3dfx, nVidia, Matrox, ATI, … Triangle rasterization (only) Cheap: pushed by game industry 1999 PC-card with TnL [ Transform and Lighting ] nVIDIA GeForce: Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) PC-card more powerful than specialized workstations Modern graphics hardware Graphics pipeline partly programmable Leaders: ATI and nVidia “ATI Radeon X1950” and “nVidia GeForce 8800” Game consoles similar to GPUs (Xbox) ,Graphics Pipeline LOD selection Frustum Culling Portal Culling … Application Modelview/Projection tr.Clipping LightingDivision by wPrimitive Assembly Viewport transform Backface culling Geometry Processing Scan Conversion Fragment Shading [Color and Texture interpol.]Frame Buffer Ops [Z-buffer, Alpha Blending,…] Rasterization Output to Device Output ,Graphics Pipeline LOD selection Frustum Culling Portal Culling … Application Programmable Clipping Division by wPrimitive Assembly Viewport transform Backface culling VERTEX SHADER Geometry Processing Scan Conversion Rasterization FRAGMENT SHADER Output to Device Output ,( x, y, z, w ) ( nx, ny, nz ) ( s, t, r, q ) ( r, g, b, a ) ( x’, y’, z’, w’ ) ( nx’, ny’, nz’ ) ( s’, t’, r’, q’ ) ( r’, g’, b’, a’ ) VERTEX SHADER ( x, y ) ( r’, g’, b’, a’ ) ( depth’ ) ( x, y ) ( r, g, b, a ) ( depth ) FRAGMENT SHADER Vertex and Fragment Shaders ,Modern Graphics Hardware GPU = Graphics Processing Unit Vector processor Operates on 4 tuples Position( x, y, z, w ) Color( red, green, blue, alpha ) Texture Coordinates( s, t, r, q ) 4 tuple ops, 1 clock cycle SIMD [ Single Instruction Multiple Data ] ADD, MUL, SUB, DIV, MADD, … ,Modern Graphics Hardware Pipelining Number of stages Parallelism Number of parallel processes Parallelism + pipelining Number of parallel pipelines 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 ,Modern Graphics Hardware Parallelism + pipelining: ATI Radeon 9700 4 vertex pipelines 8 pixel pipelines ,Modern Graphics Hardware Features of ATI Radeon X1900 XTX Core speed 650 Mhz 48 pixel shader processors 8 vertex shader processors 51 GB/s memory bandwidth 512 MB memory ,Modern Graphics Hardware High Memory Bandwidth Graphics Card High bandwidth 51GB/s GPU 650Mhz Graphics memory ½GB Output AGP bus 2GB/s Parallel Processes Processor Chip Main memory 1GB AGP memory ½GB High bandwidth 77GB/s CPU 3Ghz 3GB/s Cache ½MB ,Stream Programming Input: stream of data records Output: stream(s) of data records Kernel: operates sequentially on the data records, accessing one record at a time! Read-Only Memory: record independent read only memory ,GPU Stream Programming Vertex Shader Input and output streams Vertices, normals, colors, texture coordinates Read only memory Uniform variables Uniform = constant per stream Textures, floats, ints, arrays, … Fragment Shader Input and output streams Pixels Z-values Read only memory See above ,Languages Assembly Cg[ C for Graphics ] HLSL[ High Level
Using fragments of a larger wafer is an efficient and cost effective way of developing a new process.
Laurell Technologies Fragment Processing chuck allows for easy automated developing or etching of substrate fragments when used with our EDC range of spin processors.
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